Evidence - Population, intervention, comparator and outcomes framework

The population, intervention, comparator and outcomes (PICO) framework helps the formulation and answering of clinical questions. It can also be used to help you structure and present your evidence.


  • Who will benefit from your innovation?
  • Is the population of people who will benefit similar to the population of people that the service delivers healthcare to?


  • What is the innovation?
  • What is the innovation doing?
  • Are there any details about pathway changes needed to accommodate the intervention?


  • What currently happens?
  • What would people use if your innovation did not exist?
  • What is the main alternative to the innovation in current practice?


  • What definitive, objective improvements or changes occurred as a result of the innovation?
  • How did these impact on patient care, clinicians, services and organisations?